Since 1990 Professor Brock has taught medieval philosophy at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross in Rome. He was a visiting professor at the Catholic University of America in 1999, and at the University of Chicago starting in 2017. His research has been mainly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, in the areas of ethics, action theory, and metaphysics, with occasional ventures into theology.
“Dead Ends, Bad Form: The Positivity of Evil in the Summa theologiae,” in Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae: A Critical Guide, ed. Jeffrey P. Hause, Cambridge U. Press (2018)
“Formal Infinity, Perfection, and Determinacy in the Metaphysics of St. Thomas Aquinas,” Forum: Supplement to Acta Philosophica (2016)
The Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas: A Sketch, Cascade Books (2015)
“Practical Truth and Its First Principles in the Theory of Grisez, Boyle, and Finnis,” National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly (2015)
“Intentional Being, Natural Being, and the First-Person Perspective in Thomas Aquinas,” The Thomist (2013)
“The Causality of the Unmoved Mover in Thomas Aquinas’s Commentary on Metaphysics XII,” Nova et Vetera (2012)
“Natural Law, the Understanding of Principles, and Universal Good,” Nova et Vetera, (2011)
“Veritatis Splendor §78, St. Thomas, and (Not Merely) Physical Objects of Moral Acts,” Nova et Vetera (English Edition) 6.1 (2008)
“Thomas Aquinas and ‘What Actually Exists’,” in Wisdom’s Apprentice: Thomistic Essays in Honor of Lawrence Dewan, ed. P. Kwasniewski, CUA Press (2007)
“Harmonizing Plato and Aristotle on Esse: Thomas Aquinas and the De hebdomadibus,” Nova et Vetera (2007)
“On Whether Aquinas’s Ipsum Esse Is ‘Platonism,’” The Review of Metaphysics (2006)
“G.E.M. Anscombe and Thomas Aquinas on Necessity and Contradiction in Temporal Events,” in Analytical Thomism: Traditions in Dialogue, ed. C. Paterson & M. S. Pugh, Ashgate (2006)
“Causality and Necessity in Thomas Aquinas,” Quaestio (2002)
“St Thomas and the Eucharistic Conversion,” The Thomist (2001)
Action & Conduct: Thomas Aquinas and the Theory of Action, T&T Clark (1998)
PHIL 21722/31722 Thomas Aquinas’s Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
We will read through and discuss the commentary, looking at it both as an interpretation of the Ethics and as a philosophical work in its own right. (A) (IV)
For the undergraduates, those who are not Philosophy or Fundamentals majors should seek permission to enroll.
PHIL 21723/31723 The Will: Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas
Aristotle’s approach to ethics is sometimes termed intellectualist, meaning that it has no room for a notion of the will, understood as a principle of human action distinct from intellect or reason. Such a notion, it is said, gained currency only centuries later, at least partly through influences alien to Greek philosophy. St Augustine is often cited as one of the thinkers most responsible for the notion’s becoming prevalent. St Thomas Aquinas, however, presents a highly articulated theory of human action that appears to integrate a robust conception of the will, and one heavily indebted to Augustine, into a largely Aristotelian framework. We will read and discuss substantial passages from these three authors bearing on the question of the will, in the hope that seeing them side by side can help to get at what they really mean and what the philosophical merits of their views are. (A) (IV)
Undergraduates should either be Philosophy majors or obtain the consent of the Professor.
PHIL 20002/30002 Thomas Aquinas’s Metaphysics of Morals: The Goodness and Badness of Human Actions
Thomas Aquinas’s account of the goodness and badness that are proper to human actions—moral goodness and badness—is fundamental for his entire ethical teaching. It provides the rationale for his way of dividing human actions into kinds; it sets the reference points for his theory of virtues and vices, which he takes to be nothing other than principles of good and bad actions; it explains the moral function that he ascribes to law; and so on. The aim of this course will be to understand and think about that account. Its fullest presentation is found in Aquinas’s masterpiece, the Summa theologiae. However, the Summa’s approach to ethics is heavily metaphysical, and nowhere is this more true than in its treatment of moral goodness and badness. We shall therefore need to consult background passages from other parts of that work and other works of his, on such metaphysical topics as good and bad in general, powers and their objects, the nature of circumstances, and the relation between intellect and will. We shall also want to consider to what extent the account depends on strictly theological notions.
PHIL 20098/30098 Medieval Metaphysics: Universals from Boethius to Ockham
Any language contains terms that apply truly, and in the same sense, to indefinitely many things; for instance, species- or genus-terms, such as hippopotamus or animal. How things admit of such "universal" terms has engaged philosophers ever since Plato, who proposed participation in the forms. In the third century, the neoplatonist Porphyry wrote an introduction to Aristotle's Categories, in which he raised, but did not even try to answer, three metaphysical questions: whether genera and species are real or only posited in thoughts; whether, if real, they are bodies or incorporeal; and whether, if real, they are separate entities or belong to sensible things. A century or so later, Augustine, though not addressing Porphyry's questions, offered a neoplatonically-inspired Christian alternative to Plato's forms. Then at the beginning of the medieval period, yet another neoplatonic thinker, Boethius, took up Porphyry's questions. He offered a strict definition of universals, explained the difficulty of the questions, and proposed (without fully subscribing to) what he took to be Aristotle's way of answering them. Boethius's treatment oriented the approach to universals by philosophers up through the 12th century. The tools at their disposal, however, were mostly those provided by ancient logical works; and perhaps for this reason, the discussion reached a kind of impasse. But then there appeared translations of numerous hitherto unknown writings of Aristotle and Arab thinkers. Aristotle's hylomorphism and his doctrine of (what came to be called) abstraction, together with the notion of "common nature" proposed by Avicenna (also a neoplatonist), seemed to show a way out of the impasse. But they also raised new questions of their own - partly because of their sheer difficulty, and partly because of theological pressures, in the late 1200s, against the standard Aristotelian account of individuation by "matter." The topic of universals thus tracks various other prominent themes in medieval metaphysics. We will look at background passages in Aristotle and Porphyry, and study texts of some of the most important authors, including Augustine, Boethius, Abelard, Avicenna, Albert the Great, Aquinas, Scotus, and Ockham.
PHIL 25101/35101 Aquinas on Human Nature
There is perhaps no better introduction to St. Thomas Aquinas's philosophy of human nature than his commentary on Aristotle's classic treatment of the fundamental principles of earthly life, the De anima. Of course Aquinas also had other sources, as well as some ideas of his own, but the De anima provides him with the basic philosophical terms and framework. His interpretations continue to engage readers of Aristotle; and without some grasp of them, his theological writings on man are hardly intelligible. This course will be a close reading and discussion of the commentary, with occasional references to other works and other thinkers. (A) (I)